Analele Universităţii
"Eftimie Murgu"
Fascicula de Inginerie
ISSN-L 1453-7397
   Printed version ISSN 1453-7397
   Online version  ISSN 2344-4568

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Analele Universitatii "Eftimie Murgu" Resita. Fascicula de Inginerie

Vol. 23, No. 1 (2016)




Development of a WormCAD using Parametric Design Approach

Olayinka Oluwole Agboola, Peter Pelumi Ikubanni, Adeolu Adesoji Adediran, Rotimi Adedayo Ibikunle, Bamidele Temitope Ogunsemi

Gears as power transmission devices are capable of changing the speed, torque, and direction of a power source and are considered to be one of the most important devices used in many types of machinery owing to their durability and higher power transmission efficiency. Worm gears as a type of gear are widely used for transmitting power at high velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts. Worm gears are very useful in machine design but its design requires a lot of design assumptions and calculations. To achieve a rapid design devoid of errors, there is need to have a customized computer program capable of designing worm gears using standardized design equations; and that is what WormCAD stands for. The software was designed using JavaScript programming language and the Node.js platform. The WormCAD was tested to be accurate, faster and convenient hence it will be a viable software to be used by worm gear designers.

Pages: 11-22

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Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

Alimasunya E, Olotu Yahaya, Muhammed N

SThe paper presents the research results achieved in order to perform a comparison regarding the influence of natural and forced cooling process applied to the Nitinol active springs inside a linear motion actuator. SMAs offer attractive potentials such as reversible strains of several percent, generation of high recovery stresses and high power / weight ratios. The actuator behavior was simulated first with SolidWorks and experimentally tested for results validation.

Pages: 23-30

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The Optimal Dividing of Available Human Resources On Existing Machinery

Alexandru Victor Amariei, Daniel Mihai Amariei

In the present paper is followed an optimal dividing of five operators on the same number of machines, using the Hungarian algorithm through Network Modeling module, in the WinQSB software.

Pages: 31-38

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Study on the Evolution of Weights on the Market of Competitive Products using Markov Chains

Daniel Mihai Amariei, Alexandru Victor Amariei

In this paper aims the application through the Markov Process mode, within the software product WinQSB, Markov chain in the establishment of the development on the market of five brands of athletic shoes.

Pages: 39-44

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Optimising the Design Process of the Injection Camshaft by Critical Path Method (CPM)

Olga-Ioana Amariei, Codruta Oana Hamat, Vadim Chistruga

In the present paper a series of advantages of the CPM method are presented, focusing on the optimization of design duration of an injection camshaft, by cost criteria. The minimum duration of finalizing the design of the injection camshaft will be determined, as well as the total cost associated to this project, normally, and then under crash regime. At the end, two types of sensitivity analysis will be performed: Meeting the desire completation time and Meeting the desired budget cost.

Pages: 45-52

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Applying Simulation to Optimize Production Flows

Olga-Ioana Amariei, Codruta Oana Hamat

In this paper an optimization is carried out through simulation of the production flows of two production systems of lower rank. A methodology of simulation-optimization is developed, starting from the general methodology for achieving a simulation process. The system to be simulated is a new system, not an existing one that has to be improved.

Pages: 53-60

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Team Viewer Technology for Remote Control of a Computer

Cornelia Victoria Anghel Drugarin, Silviu Draghici, Eugen Raduca

Team Viewer software is used to remote control our PC. We can use this remote control technology to desktop sharing, online conferences and for file transfer between computers. Basically, using this software, you can ask for help a friend, or professional software to solve problems from a distance, without it having to be physically go to each client / friend in part. After installed and configured Team Viewer application, is complete, we can remote control the computer.

Pages: 61-66

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Digital Speed Cascade Control, using Scilab / Xcos Environment

Petru Chioncel, Nicoleta Gillich, Cristian Paul Chioncel, Elisabeta Spunei

This paper deals with technical matters relating to the protection of existing and innovative riverbanks, farmland and homes in case of natural disasters. Also includes comparative presentation of proposed solutions regarding the advantages and disadvantages occurring during developments.

Pages: 67-72

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Study of the Magnetic Field of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator by using the Finite Element Method

Constantin Gabriel Dobrean, Marius Biriescu, Martian Mot, Gheorghe Madescu, Marian Greconici

The study shows the numerical simulation of the magnetic field for a permanent magnet synchronous generator prototype. Through the study, the OPERA software environment, a program based on the numerical computation using the finite element method and used for the virtual simulation of the synchronous generator prototype, is shown. This 5 kVA power, permanent magnet and low speed prototype is meant for uses in hydraulic driven applications, namely wind applications, and was performed within a cooperations between the Faculty of Automation and Computers and the Faculty of Electrical and Power Engineering within the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara.

Pages: 73-88

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Theoretic Considerations on the Influence of Electrode Wire Additional Preheating upon MIG – MAG Welding

Tudorel Ene

The paper theoretically analyses the influence on the MIG-MAG welding process of additional preheating at the free end of the electrode wire by one or several heat sources, produced by independent current sources, and the modifications required by the welding equipment, consisting in the use of a system of electrode wire feed with the electrode wire advance speed depending on the arc voltage (SVD.

Pages: 89-94

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Case Study Regarding the Design of a Direct Current Electromagnet for the MIG Welding of Metallic Materials. Part I: Description of the Welding Methods and Preliminary Calculus of the Electromagnet

Tudorel Ene

The paper refers to the design of a direct current electromagnet, located on the head of a swan neck welding gun of a MIG welding equipment and used for magnetising the rotation space of two additional electric arches, in order to preheat the electrode wire and of the protective gas, partially turned into plasma jet. One describes the MIG welding method in which the electromagnet is used as well as its preliminary calculus.

Pages: 95-102

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Case Study Regarding the Design of a Direct Current Electromagnet for the MIG Welding of Metallic Materials. Part II: Constructive-Electromagnetic Dimension and Verification of the Electromagnet Operation

Tudorel Ene

The paper refers to the design of a direct current electromagnet, located on the head of a swan neck welding gun of a MIG welding equipment and used for magnetising the rotation space of two additional electric arches, in order to preheat the electrode wire and of the protective gas, partially turned into plasma jet. We present the constructive - electromagnetic dimensioning and the verification of the electromagnet operation.

Pages: 103-114

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Analysis of Electricity Consumption for Industrial Consumers

Marius Constantin Georgescu

This paper presents a case study regarding the analysis of electricity consumption for a slaughter house as industrial consumer. This analysis takes into consideration the load curves during a whole year time delay. Based on data processing statistical methods within this case study, the author develops a forecasting procedure with time series analysis in order to better estimate the electricity consumption during a year. For the considered consumer, continuous supplied all the day by two power delivery networks of 20kV by means of an electrical transformer, practical results have been considered in order to verify the accuracy of statistical analysis.

Pages: 115-120

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Contributions to the Kinematic Analysis of the Double Harmonic Gear Transmission

Draghita Ianici, Sava Ianici

The paper presents the kinematic analysis of the double harmonic gear transmission by comparative determining of the transmission ratio for two constructive variants of these transmissions. It demonstrates the viability of double harmonic gear transmission (DHGT) by presenting the operating principle and calculation of transmission ratio by using the analytical method of inversion motion. We performed a comparative analysis of transmission ratio for the two kinematic models of DHGT (z2 = z'2, respectively z2 ≠ z'2).

Pages: 121-126

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Research Concerning Deformation of Flexible Wheel of the Double Harmonic Gear Transmission

Sava Ianici, Draghita Ianici

The paper presents a study of the dynamic behaviour of flexible toothed wheel whit combined radial teeth (exterior, respectively interior), of a double harmonic gear transmission (DHGT). We present a comparative-critical analysis of two deformation laws of the flexible toothed wheel (one elliptical and other cosine type), using a set of computer programs of own conception, written in Visual Basic. We demonstrate a similarity between cosine deformation law of the flexible wheel and the elliptical law, proving that the cosine deformation law can approximate the elliptical law with a high degree of accuracy.

Pages: 127-134

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Evaluation of Irrigation Technology Adoption in Edo State Nigeria

Imanogor P.A.,, Unuigbe O.M.

The acceptance and continuous use of any innovation is the ultimate objective of extension programme. However, extension efforts have failed to avail farmers with some beneficial research-based agricultural technology. There are various factors which predispose farmers to the adoption of any innovation. This study was carried out to find out what factors would favourably dispose farmers to the adoption of irrigation technology. The study was done in the three senatorial districts of Edo State. A total of one hundred and fifty farmers were interviewed of which fifty nine were adopters of irrigation technology. Personal characteristics of farmers which were found to significantly influence the adoption of the innovation include farm size, level of education, social participation and contact with extension agents with a significant index value of 0.88. However the required impact desired through extension service is yet to be appreciated.

Pages: 135-144

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Optimal Design of DC Electromagnets Based on Imposed Dynamic Characteristics

Sergiu Ivas, Madalin Costin

In this paper is proposed a method for computing of optimal geometric dimensions of a DC electromagnet, based on the imposed dynamical characteristics. For obtaining the optimal design, it is built the criterion function in an analytic form that may be optimized in the order to find the constructive solution. Numerical simulations performed in Matlab software confirm the proposed work. The presented method can be extended to other electromagnetic devices which frequently operate in dynamic regime.

Pages: 145-154

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Design and Simulation of Electrocardiogram Circuit with Automatic Analysis of ECG Signal

Tosin Jemilehin, Michael Adu

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is the graphical record of bioelectric signal generated by the human body during cardiac cycle, it tells a lot about the medical status of an individual. A typical ECG waveform consist of the P, Q, R, S and T wave. The automatic ECG signal analysis comprises of using computational method/approach in extracting important features and classification of ECG waveform. This paper presents a concise ECG circuit design using an instrumentation amplifier and a band-pass passive filter. It also present the process involved in analysis of ECG signal. The first stage is the pre-filtering stage, followed by feature extraction of the signal. QRS complex is first extracted followed by P and T wave detection, also the FFT of the signal is also extracted. These features are fed into the classifier for proper classification. A pattern recognition neural network is used for classification, prior to the full deployment of the neural network, it is trained by pre-recorded ECG signal downloaded from the MIT/BIH Arrhythmias database. The neural network gave a satisfactory result with accuracy of around 87%.The whole ECG signal analysis is packaged into a MATLAB GUI for ease of use.

Pages: 155-172

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Evaluation of Hydraulic Loads on the Runner Blades of a Kaplan Turbine using CFD Simulation and Model Test

Zoltan-Iosif Korka, Viorel Campian, Daniel-Iosif Balint, Vasile Cojocaru, Ana-Maria Budai

TCFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) is today a standard procedure for analyzing and simulating the flow through several hydraulic machines. In this process, the fluid flow domain is divided into small volumes where the governing equations are converted into algebraic ones, which are numerically solved. Computational results strongly depend on the applied mathematical model and on the numerical methods used for converting the governing equations into the algebraic ones. The goal of the paper is to evaluate, by numerical simulation, the hydraulic loads (forces and torques on the runner blades) of an existent Kaplan turbine and to compare them with the experimental results obtained from model test.

Pages: 173-182

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The Lifetime of the Biplane Disc by using the Mean Stress Theory

Cristian Marius Mimis, Tiberiu Stefan Manescu, Razvan Avram

Butterfly valves in hydroelectric scheme are safety elements that ensure tightly closed access water into downstream equipment. The operation conditions of the biplane disc butterfly valve are subjected to cycles of varying loads. The paper present the lifetime of the butterfly valve disc by using the Soderberg mean stress theory to find the minimum number of cycles which the disc can be loaded and unloaded during the operation of the butterfly valve.

Pages: 183-188

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Automatic Control of a Dual-SMA Actuator System

Ion-Cornel Mituletu, Dorian Anghel

The present paper describes research results considering the automatic control of a prehension module using a dual shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The offspring targeted a high-speed prehension appliance by means of adjusting constants of a PID controller. Furthermore, SMA springs are individually driven according each one’s particularities, aiming at prolonging life of dual SMA actuator, with respect to parametric values given by manufacturer. Problem of process control is approached from few perspectives: automatic control, software implementation and electronic performance, the first being the one subjected to following discussion.

Pages: 189-194

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Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

Arina Negoitescu, Adriana Tokar

In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

Pages: 195-202

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A Practical Method to Increase the Frequency Readability for Vibration Signals

Jean Loius Ntakpe, Nicoleta Gillich,, Gilbert-Rainer Gillich

Damage detection and nondestructive evaluation of mechanical and civil engineering structures are nowadays very important to assess the integrity and ensure the reliability of structures. Thus, frequency evaluation becomes a crucial issue, since this modal parameter is mainly used in structural integrity assessment. The herein presented study highligts the possibility of increasing the frequency readability by involving a simple and cost-effective method.

Pages: 203-210

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Interpolation of Rainfall-River Orle Discharge for Developing 1.032 MW of Hydropower in Estako-West, Nigeria

Oyati Edith Nwabuogo, Olotu Yahaya

Annual rainfall is of great importance to every nation and provides useful data on agricultural, hydrology and hydraulics designs. The research study presents the evaluation of the hydropower potential of river Orle using the analytical potential interpolation of hydrological elements (Rainfall, river discharges e.t.c) with emphasis of developing 1.032 MW power plant-reservoirs. Hydropower is a renewable energy source based on the natural water cycle and most mature, reliable and cost-effective renewable power generation technology. Gumbel’s Probability Distribution method, U.S Soil Conservation technique and empirical formulation were used to estimate maximum flood design, rainfall distribution and intensity and peak river flow. The hydrological data provided by Benin-Owena River Basin stationed in Auchi Polytechnic were applied for the analysis. The outputs revealed that annual average rainfall of 98.1 mm or more in 75-year; 130.1 mm or more in 50-year out of 100 years. The exceedence probability for a rainfall of 158.1mm is 0.25 with observed rainfall greater than normal. At discharge (10.77 * 10-2 m3/s), the proposed Orle hydropower scheme generated 1.032MW during the peak of wet and 76.6 KW was evaluated during the drying season at (0.80 * 10-2m3/s). The study draws a conclusion that for runoff river scheme at 41.7% flow, the total hydropower potential of 0.676 MW was evaluated.

Pages: 211-221

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Physico-Chemical and Microbial Analysis of the Effects of Abattoirs Operation in Estako-West and Central, Edo-State, Nigeria

Olaiya S., Mahmud Hauwau, Eboreime Lucky, Afolabi O.C.

Abattoir wastewater has a complex composition and very harmful to the environment. There is always need for reduction in the impact of natural and most especially anthropogenic pollution to enhance water quality, food safety and sustainable development. Physico-chemical and microbial properties analysed using standard laboratory procedures were temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, total solid (TS), total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), acidity, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness, chloride, iron and nitrate. Temperature ranged from 28.04- 29.12C, pH between was 7.67-8.01, Alkalinity is 0.45 mg/l, TS, BOD and TSS were 700 mm/l, 48 mm/l, 500 mm/l, DO is 2,100 ppm. Holistic outputs of the investigation revealed various water samples were contaminated with E. Coli and other enteric bacteria. The presence of coliform staphylococcus aures indicated the presence of microorganisms which are associated with water borne disease.

Pages: 222-227

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Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Seawater using Jatropha Stem

Olawale Olamide, Oyawale Festus Adekunle, Adediran Adeolu Adesoji, Obafemi Akinwale Sunday

The present work investigate the inhibition of Jatropha Stem Extract (JSE) in sea water using mild steel coupons of dimension 5 × 5 × 0.5 cm. The cupons were immersed in test solutions of sea water and varied concentrations of extracts of 0.1g/l to 0.9g/l was used. The functional groups of the compounds was analyzed using an FTIR. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was a reduction in the corrosion rates. Furthermore, as the extract concentrations increased from 0.1g/l to 0.4g/l at 48hrs exposure time, the weight loss decreased by 14.3% in the medium. However, the Jatropha Stem Extract was absorbed on the substrate surface to inhibit corrosion, the morphology of phases formed from the scanning Electron Microscopy examination confirmed this trend. Hence, JSE is a good and safe inhibitor in sea water solution. The FT-IR results also indicates the presence of active corrosion inhibitor present in the Jatropha Stem.

Pages: 228-238

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Analysis of Tensile Strength of Bamboo Reinforced Polyester Composite

Omholua Anthony Omokhudu, Ujam A.J., Uviesherhe Okiemute Edijana

Nigerian grown species of bamboo called bambusa vulgaris which was examined to analyze its tensile strength. The fibre characteristics and tensile strength were investigated at three different fibre lengths and fibre loadings i.e 10, 30,50mm and 10, 30, 50 wt.% respectively. Fibre length was varied in each fibre loading from 10mm to 50mm, the tensile strength of the three different series of composites varies from 28.32Mpa to 38.10Mpa. The predicted optimum tensile strength is 44.51Mpa. Generated results have been validated by the confirmation of experiments at three replications, when the control factors were set at 30mm and 30% wt or (level 2, level 2), using Taguchi’s design of experiments approach. It was observed from the analysis of variance of the samples that there is a variation in the increase of tensile strength of the bamboo that are dependent on the fibre length and fibre loading used. The percentage contributions of parameter according to the pooled ANOVA for signal-to- Noise ratio showed that the fibre length (36.61%) in controlling variation and mean strength is significantly smaller than the fibre loading (44.15%).

Pages: 239-248

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An Investigation about using Nanorefrigerants in Air Conditioning Systems According to the Theoretical, CFD and Experimental Review of the Recent Literature

Farshad Panahizadeh, Navid Bozorgan

Greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming and climate change. In the year 2014, 32.3 billion tones CO2 emitted to the atmosphere as the most important greenhouse gas. According to the statistics, a significant portion of this amount is related to electricity demand of air conditioning systems, for producing a one ton of refrigeration in HVAC air cooled or water cooled systems respectively 1026 and 764 grams GHG emitted in the atmosphere. Therefore, air conditioning systems have an important role in the global warming and climate change. By increasing the COP of air conditioning systems the electricity demand of them reduced. One strategy for increasing the COP of air conditioning systems is using nanorefrigerants. In the present study, a comprehensive information is given regarding to use nanorefrigerants in air conditioning systems according to the theoretical, CFD and experimental review of the recent literature. This paper gives assistance to designers of air conditioning systems in their future efforts for selecting refrigerant for their systems.

Pages: 249-260

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Electrical Field Distribution Analysis on Human Being Placed under High Voltage Lines

Ion Paraschiv, Ion Voncila, Madalin Costin, Sergiu Ivas

The paper presents the interaction between electric field of a high voltage line and the body of a human being placed near the line, for normal situation, when human being is placed on the ground or in accidental situation when the human being is placed near the line. The research is based on a simplified model of human being solved by finite elements method. Both aspects as field measure (as a disturbance for human being) and energy one has been pointed out and, finally, forces via weighted tensor developed between field and human being. The work results, developed in this paper, may be successful used in the order to improve the normative exigencies for different practice field interactions.

Pages: 261-272

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Study of Energy Losses in High-Voltage Induction Motor Electric Drive

Svilen Rachev, Cornelia Anghel Drugarin, Konstantinos Karakoulidis, Ivaylo Dimitrov, Lyubomir Dimitrov

The dynamic behavior during operation of the high-voltage induction motor electric drive has been studied by means of mathematical model developed. The purpose is to draw out more clearly picture of operation of high-voltage induction motor drives. The system of differential equations has been transformed and solved using suitable software. As a result the values of the energy losses components in the induction motor have been obtained according to different values of supply voltage and factor of inertia. Some of the study results have been presented graphically. An analysis has been made and conclusions from the results obtained have been done.

Pages: 273-282

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An Application for the Improvement of the Transportation System of the Flour in a Grain Mill using "PID Compact"

Eugen Raduca, Marius Schmidt, Cornel Hatiegan, Ioan Halalae, Silviu Draghici

The paper presents an application based on a PLC Simatic S7-1200, using the "PID_Compact" logical function, which can be used for the improvement of control systems. We also present a practical application: a system for the improvement of the transportation system of the flour in a grain mill using "PID Compact" .

Pages: 283-290

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Combined Effects of Hall Current and Chemical Reaction on Unsteady MHD Flow Past an Impulsively Started Vertical Plate with Constant Wall Temperature and Mass Diffusion

Uday Singh Rajput, Neetu Kanaujia

Combined effects of Hall current and chemical reaction on unsteady MHD flow past a vertical plate with constant wall temperature and mass diffusion is studied here. The fluid considered is electrically conducting and heat generating. The Laplace transform technique has been used to find the solutions for the velocity and Skin friction. The velocity profile, temperature and mass diffusion have been studied for different parameters like Schmidt number, Hall parameter, magnetic parameter, chemical reaction parameter, mass Grashof number, thermal Grashof number, Prandtl number, and time. The effect of parameters is shown graphically, and the values of the skin-friction have been tabulated

Pages: 291-304

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Chemical Reaction Effect on Unsteady MHD Flow Past an Exponentially Accelerated Inclined Plate with Variable Temperature and Mass Diffusion in the Presence of Hall Current

Uday Singh Rajput, Gaurav Kumar

Chemical reaction effect on unsteady MHD flow past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current is studied here. The fluid considered is gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The Governing equations involved in the present analysis are solved by the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profile is discussed with the help of graphs drawn for different parameters like Grashof number, mass Grashof Number, Prandtl number, Chemical reaction parameter, Hall current parameter, accelerated parameter, the magnetic field parameter and Schmidt number, and the numerical values of skin-friction and Sherwood number have been tabulated.

Pages: 305-319

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Study Regarding the Identification of an Internal Combustion Engine

Ioan Ruja, Elisabeta Spunei, Monica Rosu

The paper presents the results of the scientific investigations performed on an Otto engine. One conducted surveys on the analytic and experimental modelling of the internal combustion engine, considered as automated system element. The results of the analytical study are concretised in the mathematical model of the engine, expressed in the operational. The experimental results are concretised in the indicial response in rotating speed, as well as in the determination of the constants of interest. The investigation methods used in conducting the survey were: experimental identification based on the indicial response of the engine and the analytical identification based on the mathematical models of diverse engine subsystems.

Pages: 320-328

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Model of Agricultural Sprayer Installation and Nozzle Operation

Fanel Dorel Scheaua

The cultivation of agricultural land represents an important field of interest for all countries because through this area basic food is provided for human communities. Agricultural machines are considered part of special mechanical equipments category intended to perform mechanized works in farmlands, in order to obtain the optimal harvests. This paper shows a functional description of sprayer installation model which can be attached to the agricultural tractors. It represents an auxiliary installation capable of preparing the fluid mixtures to achieve the application of different sanitary treatments (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides) on field crops, using the hydraulic system of the agricultural tractor to which is connecting. The mounting solution for the installation is at the rear side of the tractor being the model widely used on most constructive pattern of agricultural tractors. Also a CFD analysis it was conducted on two nozzle models that can be used for treatment application on crops in agricultural fields. The results are presented for each nozzle model highlighting the fluid velocity substance coverage and total pressure for each model.

Pages: 329-336

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A Comparative Study of Outdoor Lighting System Performance

Elisabeta Spunei, Ion Piroi, Florina Piroi

We analyse in this work three outdoor lighting systems using three types of light sources, in order to determine their performance with respect to outdoor lighting restrictions. The study in this work contributes to gaining insights on how to increase the outdoor lighting systems’ energy efficiency. We analyse two LED source types and one sodium fumes light source type, which illuminates various sections on a street in Reşiţa, Romania. Upon analysing and processing the data, we establish the performances of each of the three lighting sources, whether they respect the imposed standards, and which one is the best lighting source to choose. This work shows the necessity of field measurements regarding the lighting system efficiency before the acquirement of a specific system type.

Pages: 337-346

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Considerations on Seismic Design of Installations using Natural Gas Fuel

Adriana Tokar, Arina Negoitescu

The paper presents issues relating to existing standards underlying seismic design restrictions for non-structural components (NSC) related to constructions. Are presented measures that can be implemented to maintain a high level of safety in case of earthquake, natural gas plants, which due to the flammability of fuel, carry some risk of fire or explosion. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for seismic design of facilities using natural gas fuel for new buildings but also to review the existing installations in buildings by taking mandatory measures.

Pages: 347-356

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Resita in Permanent Evolution of Industrial Research and Development

Ion Vela, Daniel Gheorghe Vela, Monica Rosu

The paper presents aspects related to the evolution of industry at Reşiţa, where in 1771 they put the first high furnace into exploitation. Along time these furnaces have undergone continuous improvements and modernisations, and in 1868 the Reşiţa Works started producing steel and two Bessemer converters were mounted. Due to the continual operation and enhancement, in conditions of „permanent fire”, Reşiţa acquired the name of Romania’s „FIRE CITADEL”. In parallel machinebuilding industry also developed at Reşiţa. The increase of the necessary quality products imposed the development of scientific research and of the specialised schools and colleges.

Pages: 357-368

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Calibration of Soil Moisture Measurement Using Pr2 Moisture Meter and Gravimetric-Based Approaches

Olotu Yahaya, Omoregie Alexander, Dirisu H.O.,, Alhassan A.I.

The research study strongly focused on creating strong mechanism for measuring and evaluating soil moisture content comparing PR2 capacitance moisture meter and gravimetric approach. PR2 moisture meter shows a better performance accuracy of 6%; 0.06 m3/m3 and intercept a0 =1.8; indicating the field is heavy clay. It measures to 1000 mm depth with high precision; while realistic result could not be obtained from gravimetric method at this measuring depth. Therefore, effective soil moisture measuring, monitoring and evaluation can be achieved with PR2 moisture meter.

Pages: 369-377

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Renewable Energy Deployment as Climate Change Mitigation in Nigeria

Olotu Yahaya, Oyati Edith Nwabuogo

The scientific evidence of climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions which causes ozone layer depletion is becoming increasingly obvious and clear. Findings revealed that energy from the fossil fuel is the major source of greenhouse emission which destroys the environment and makes it unhealthy for living beings. In Nigeria, conventional energy (oil and gas) with gas flaring has the highest percentage of 52% and liquid fuel of 32% of carbon dioxide (CO2) respectively. This sector contributes revenue of over 70% to Nigeria’s economy and generates an average total 21.8% of greenhouse gas emission. In Nigeria, there is a much more potential for share renewables with 15.4% of total energy production and 8.6 % of energy consumption. In reality with global environmental concern, Nigeria’s carbon dioxide emissions have increased with energy production and consumption. The Integrated Renewable Energy Master Plan of 2008 projects a 26.7% renewable energy contribution to the Nigeria’s energy use and this is expected to reduce CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions at 38% by2025. Nigeria has not been playing significant role by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper highlights Nigeria’s climate change situation and penetration requirements for various renewable energy deployments as mitigating instrument for climate change towards healthy and productive environment.

Pages: 378-392

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